During the process of copolymerization of resins to form a three dimensional matrix, and a difunctional monomer is added to form cross-linkages between adjacent polymer chains. The degree of cross-linking is determined by the amount of this monomer added to the reaction. For example, divinylbenzene is a typical cross-linking agent for polystyrene ion-exchange resins. The swelling and diffusion characteristics of a resin are governed by its degree of cross-linking.

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